What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus is a Metabolic disorder, characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin.

In simple words : insulin produced by pancreas is necessary for maintaining normal blood sugar levels. When insulin production is less, sugar level in body increases.

What is Normal Blood Glucose Level ?


(Impaired Glucose tolerance)

In empty stomach (Fasting) 70-99 mg/dl 100-125 mg/dl
After food Up to 139 mg/dl 140-199 mg/dl
HBA,C Test 4 – 5.6% 5.7-6.4%

*Prediabetic is a state where you don’t have diabetes yet, but you are at increased risk of developing diabetes.

When to suspect Diabetes?

Clues for Diabetes in Children:

  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Frequent headache, Constipation, Abdominal pain.
  • Candidal Diaper rashes in infants & toddlers.
  • Vulvo vaginal candidiasis in teenage girls


Clues for Diabetes in Adults:

  • Osmotic symptoms : Polyurea: frequent urination, Polydispya: increased thrist
  • Nocturia (increased frequency of urination in night)
  • Weight loss
  • Headache
  • Guiddiness
  • Easy fatigability/Weakness
  • Frequent vaginal infections and urinary infections
  • Tingling,numbness in legs, fingers and toes
  • Frequent muscle cramps


Who are at risk?

  • Family History of diabetes
  • Overweight (BMI>23.5)
  • Physical inactivity
  • Previously identified as prediabetic
  • Hypertension (Bp greater than 140/90 mmHg)
  • Increased blood cholesterol
  • H/o raised sugar level in pregnancy or H/O giving birth to baby weighing greater than or equal to 9 pounds(4kgs)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS)

Lab values to confirm diabetes

ADA Diagnostic criteria:

  • HbA1C >= 6.5% (NGSP Certified onethod and standardized to DCCT assay)
  • FBS >= 126 mg/dl (Fasting defined as no calorie intake for >= 8 hours)
  • 2 hour post prandial >=  200 mg/dl during 75g OGTT.
  • RBS >= 200mg/dl in persons with symptoms of hyperglycemia.

Don’t Forget to go through this link..

Busted : Eat fruits and cure diabetes (Biswaroop Roy Chowdhury exposed)

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