What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes Mellitus is a Metabolic disorder, characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin.
In simple words : insulin produced by pancreas is necessary for maintaining normal blood sugar levels. When insulin production is less, sugar level in body increases.
What is Normal Blood Glucose Level ?
(Impaired Glucose tolerance)
|In empty stomach (Fasting)||70-99 mg/dl||100-125 mg/dl|
|After food||Up to 139 mg/dl||140-199 mg/dl|
|HBA,C Test||4 – 5.6%||5.7-6.4%|
*Prediabetic is a state where you don’t have diabetes yet, but you are at increased risk of developing diabetes.
When to suspect Diabetes?
Clues for Diabetes in Children:
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Loss of appetite.
- Frequent headache, Constipation, Abdominal pain.
- Candidal Diaper rashes in infants & toddlers.
- Vulvo vaginal candidiasis in teenage girls
Clues for Diabetes in Adults:
- Osmotic symptoms : Polyurea: frequent urination, Polydispya: increased thrist
- Nocturia (increased frequency of urination in night)
- Weight loss
- Easy fatigability/Weakness
- Frequent vaginal infections and urinary infections
- Tingling,numbness in legs, fingers and toes
- Frequent muscle cramps
Who are at risk?
- Family History of diabetes
- Overweight (BMI>23.5)
- Physical inactivity
- Previously identified as prediabetic
- Hypertension (Bp greater than 140/90 mmHg)
- Increased blood cholesterol
- H/o raised sugar level in pregnancy or H/O giving birth to baby weighing greater than or equal to 9 pounds(4kgs)
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS)
Lab values to confirm diabetes
ADA Diagnostic criteria:
- HbA1C >= 6.5% (NGSP Certified onethod and standardized to DCCT assay)
- FBS >= 126 mg/dl (Fasting defined as no calorie intake for >= 8 hours)
- 2 hour post prandial >= 200 mg/dl during 75g OGTT.
- RBS >= 200mg/dl in persons with symptoms of hyperglycemia.
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